Characterization and Optimization Technique for Microwave-Driven High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Using Hot S-Parameters

Stefan Holtrup, Arash Sadeghfam, Holger Heuermann, Peter Awakowicz


High-intensity discharge lamps can be driven by radio-frequency signals in the ISM frequency band at 2.45 GHz, using a matching network to transform the impedance of the plasma to the source impedance. To achieve an optimal operating condition, a good characterization of the lamp in terms of radio frequency equivalent circuits under operating conditions is necessary, enabling the design of an efficient matching network. This paper presents the characterization technique for such lamps and presents the design of the required matching network. For the characterization, a high-intensity discharge lamp was driven by a monofrequent large signal at 2.45 GHz, whereas a frequency sweep over 300 MHz was performed across this signal to measure so-called small-signal hot S-parameters using a vector network analyzer. These parameters are then used as an equivalent load in a circuit simulator to design an appropriate matching network. Using the measured data as a black-box model in the simulation results in a quick and efficient method to simulate and design efficient matching networks in spite of the complex plasma behavior. Furthermore, photometric analysis of high-intensity discharge lamps are carried out, comparing microwave operation to conventional operation.